A model (from Middle French modèle), sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed for the purpose of displaying and promoting fashion clothing or other products and for advertising or promotional purposes or who poses for works of art.
Modeling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is not considered modeling. However, models may be considered to express emotion in their photographs or video.
Types of modeling include fashion, glamor, fitness, bikini, fine art, and body-part models. Models are features in a variety of media formats including books, magazines, movies, newspapers, and TV. The models themselves can be a featured part of a movie (Looker, Tattoo), reality television show (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), or music video ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters").
* 1 Social construction
* 2 Fashion models
o 2.1 General
o 2.2 Body types
o 2.3 Female body type
o 2.4 Male body type
o 2.5 Supermodels
* 3 Glamour models
* 4 Fitness models
* 5 Bikini models
* 6 Models with other objects
* 7 Artist's models
* 8 Gravure idols
* 9 Alternative models
* 10 Body-parts models
* 11 Working conditions
* 12 See also
* 13 References
Various representations of beauty and fashion using models have caused controversy and is known to have some social impact, particularly on young people - both male and female.
Fashion models on the runway.
Models may be used to display and promote clothing. Fashion modelling may involve catwalk or runway modelling or editorial modelling, covering photography for magazine spreads, ad campaigns, catalogues, print etc. The emphasis of fashion photography is on the clothes or accessories, not the model. Fashion models may be used to display or promote various types of clothing, such as lingerie, swimsuit, and bikini. Models may be used in showroom, fit modeling, fitness or sporty modelling. Some are used for petite modelling or plus-size modeling.
The first person described as a fashion model is Parisian shopgirl, Marie Vernet Worth. She was a house model in 1852, to her fashion designer husband, Charles Frederick Worth. Body types
Because clothing is needed to be modeled for all people, a variety of shapes and sizes is required in models.
Female body type
Main articles: Size zero and Female body shape
The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34-24-34 in (86-61-86 cm) and between 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m) and 6 ft 0 in (1.83 m) tall. The ideal measurements used to be 35.5-23.5-35.5 in (90-60-90 cm), which were the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. However, today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA recommended shape, although by no means do all models have these exact statistics, and fashion houses may require other sizes for their models. Although in some fashion industries, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.
The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos - also a model - died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk.
 Male body type
The preferred average dimensions for a male model are a height of 6 ft 1 in (1.85 m) to 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m), a waist of 28–33 in (71.12–83.82 cm) and a chest measurement of 36–41 in (91.44–104.14 cm). Male runway models have been noted as being skinny and well toned to fit the clothes, whereas editorial models cover all body types from slender to muscular.